PHYSICALLYBASED

A database of physically based values for CG artists



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Materials

NameColor
For dielectrics (non-metals), this specifies diffuse reflectance for opaque materials, or transmission color for transparent materials.
For conductors (metals), this specifies reflection color.
Density
This value can be used for rigid body physics simulation.
Aluminum
- kg/m3
Banana
-
Blackboard
-
Blood
The color of blood depends on its oxygen level. When there is plenty of oxygen, the color is a brighter red. The reason is because of a protein called hemoglobin, which carries the oxygen in your blood. When hemoglobin has a full oxygen load, it has a bright red color, and when it's deoxygenated it's a darker red. For example, arterial and capillary blood is bright, and venous blood is dark.
kg/m3
Bone
Typical range: 1000–2000 kg/m3
kg/m3
Brass
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, with a bright and gold-like appearance. It is similar to bronze, another alloy containing copper that uses tin instead of zinc. Historically, the distinction between the two alloys has been less consistent and clear, and modern practice in museums and archaeology increasingly avoids both terms for historical objects in favor of the more general "copper alloy".
- kg/m3
Brick
Typical range: 500–2400 kg/m3
kg/m3
Carrot
-
Charcoal
Typical range: 200–500 kg/m3
kg/m3
Chocolate
Typical range: 1229–1336 kg/m3
kg/m3
Chromium
- kg/m3
Cobalt
- kg/m3
Coffee
kg/m3
Concrete
kg/m3
Cooking Oil
kg/m3
Copper
- kg/m3
Diamond
kg/m3
Egg Shell
White hen egg from grocery store.
-
Eye (cornea)
-
Eye (lens)
The refractive index of human lens varies from approximately 1.406 in the central layers down to 1.386 in less dense layers of the lens. This index gradient enhances the optical power of the lens.
-
Eye (sclera)
-
Gasoline
kg/m3
Glass
kg/m3
Gold
- kg/m3
Gray Card
18% gray has a perceptual lightness of 50%.
-
Honey
Variations in its water content alter its refractive index. Typically, the refractive index for honey ranges from 1.504 at 13% water content to 1.474 at 25%.
Typical range: 1380–1450 kg/m3
kg/m3
Ice
kg/m3
Iron
- kg/m3
Ketchup
kg/m3
Lead
- kg/m3
Lemon
-
Mercury
Mercury is the only metallic element that is known to be liquid at standard conditions.
- kg/m3
Milk
Cow's milk
Typical range: 1026–1035 kg/m3
kg/m3
Nickel
- kg/m3
Office Paper
Office paper contains optical brightening additives that absorb light in the ultraviolet and violet region (usually 340-370 nm), and re-emit light in the blue region (typically 420-470 nm) by fluorescence.
-
Pearl
The akoya pearl is a saltwater cultured pearl from the akoya oyster. Akoya are considered to be the classic pearl used for necklaces and other pearl jewelry. Nacre is the material of which pearls are composed and consists of aragonite crystal layers separated by conchiolin, a protein secreted by mollusk shells. The thickness of these layers determines the color of reflection from the nacre. The transmission interference color is complementary to the reflection interference color.
-
Petroleum
The viscosity of crude oil is sensitive to temperature.
Typical range: 870–1000 kg/m3
kg/m3
Plastic (PC)
kg/m3
Plastic (PET)
kg/m3
Plastic (Acrylic)
kg/m3
Plastic (PP)
kg/m3
Plastic (PVC)
Typical range: 1100–1450 kg/m3
kg/m3
Platinum
- kg/m3
Polyurethane
Modern car paints are nearly always an acrylic polyurethane "enamel" with a pigmented basecoat and a clear topcoat. It may be described as "acrylic", "acrylic enamel", "urethane", etc. and the clearcoat in particular may be described as a lacquer.
-
Salt
kg/m3
Sand
kg/m3
Sapphire
kg/m3
Silicon
- kg/m3
Silver
- kg/m3
Skin I
kg/m3
Skin II
kg/m3
Skin III
kg/m3
Skin IV
kg/m3
Skin V
kg/m3
Skin VI
kg/m3
Snow
-
Soap Bubble
The colors of a soap bubble are the result of an interaction between the light reflected from the front and back surfaces of the soap film, a phenomenon known as thin-film interference. The thickness of a soap bubble can range between 10 nm and 1000 nm. It's thinner at the top due to gravity.
-
Tire
Car tire.
-
Titanium
- kg/m3
Tungsten
- kg/m3
Vanadium
- kg/m3
Water
While relatively small quantities of water appear to be colorless, pure water has a slight blue color that becomes deeper as the thickness of the observed sample increases. The hue of water is an intrinsic property and is caused by selective absorption and scattering of white light. Dissolved elements or suspended impurities may give water a different color.
Typical range: 958–1000 kg/m3
kg/m3
Whiteboard
-
Zinc
- kg/m3

Light Sources

NameIntensity
Luminous flux is measured in lumen (lm) and is the quantity of light emitted by a source.

Illuminance is measured in lux (lx) and is the measure of light quantity that hits a surface.

Luminance is measured in candelas per square meter (cd/m²) and is the measure of light that is emitted from a surface.

Radiant flux is measured in watts (W) and is the radiant energy emitted by a source.

Irradiance is measured in watts per square meter (W/m²) and is the radiant energy received by a surface.
Sources
Arri SkyPanel X K
Typical range: 1500–20000 K
lm [1]
Candle Flame K lm [1][2]
Car Headlight (Halogen)
Tungsten-halogen bulbs, commonly just called halogen, are the most widely used bulbs in car headlights. High beam is approximately double the intensity of a low beam.
K
Typical range: 700–2000 lm
lm
[1][2]
Digital Display
Displays like computer monitors, TVs, signage, etc. Typically they have a temperature of 6500K but it can vary. The sRGB spec for monitors targets 80 cd/m2. Typically, monitors calibrated for broadcast or studio color grading should have a brightness of 100 cd/m2 in Japan and in the United States, or 120 cd/m2 in the European Union. This is however considered quite dark for normal use, so consumer monitors tend to be brighter.
K
Typical range: 100–2000 cd/m2
cd/m2
[1][2][3]
Firefly
Fireflies produce a "cold light", with no infrared or ultraviolet frequencies. The light may be yellow, green, or pale red, with wavelengths from 510 to 670 nanometers. Some species such as the dimly glowing "blue ghost" of the Eastern US may seem to emit blueish-white light from a distance and in low light conditions, but their glow is bright green when observed up close. Their perceived blue tint may be due to the Purkinje effect.
- lm [1][2][3]
Fluorescent Tube Light K
Typical range: 500–5000 lm
lm
[1][2]
Kerosene Lamp K
Typical range: 8–100 lm
lm
[1][2]
Household Light Bulb
Today's household lightbulbs has a LED light source whereas older light bulbs were using a glowing tungsten filament. LED:s are much much more energy efficient and makes the use of wattage, as a measure of intensity, not very useful. This is why lumen is preferred.
K
Typical range: 2400–6000 K
Typical range: 400–1000 lm
lm
[1][2]
Moon
Technically not a light source, since the light from the moon is simply reflected sunlight. Moonlight is warmer than sunlight due to the surface material of the moon shifting it towards a redder color. Just as sunlight, moonlight is also subject to atmospheric scattering known as Rayleigh scattering, where it goes more towards red during moonrise and moonset. Moonlight is often mistaken to be bluish due to the Purkinje effect.
K
Typical range: 0.05–0.32 lx
lx
[1][2][3][4][5][6]
Photo Flash K lm [1]
Sky (Clear)
Shade illuminated by entire clear blue sky at midday
K lx [1][2][3][4]
Sky (Moonless Clear Night)
Even a moonless sky casts some light on earth. A phenomenon called airglow, and also starlight, contributes to this. The color of airglow varies
- lx [1][2][3][4]
Sky (Overcast Day) K
Typical range: 100–2000 lx
lx
[1][2][3]
Street Light
The type of yellow light typically used in street lighting is usually a sodium-vapor light. To simulate a sodium-vapor light faithfully you would need a spectral renderer where you can specify the very narrow wavelength range of 589.0 - 589.6 nm in order to get its bespoke monochromatic look.
-
Typical range: 2000–140000 lm
lm
[1][2]
Sun
The changing color of the Sun over the course of the day is mainly a result of the scattering of sunlight and is not due to changes in black-body radiation. The solar illuminance constant is equal to 128 000 lux, but atmospheric extinction brings the number of lux down to around 100 000 lux.
K
Typical range: 400–100000 lx
lx
[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Cameras

NameSensor SizeSensor Aspect RatioCrop Factor
Relative to 35 mm film format
Arri Alexa 35 x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
16:11
Arri Alexa 65 x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
19:9
Arri Amira x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
16:9
Arri Alexa LF x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
10:7
Arri Alexa Mini x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
14:9
Arri Alexa Mini LF x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
10:7
Arri Alexa SXT W x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
14:9
Blackmagic Cinema Camera 6K x mm 3:2
Blackmagic Micro Studio Camera 4K G2 x mm 16:9
Blackmagic Pocket Cinema Camera 4K x mm 17:9
Blackmagic Pocket Cinema Camera 6K x mm 16:9
Blackmagic Studio Camera 4K x mm 16:9
Blackmagic Studio Camera 4K Plus G2 x mm 16:9
Blackmagic Studio Camera 4K Pro G2 x mm 16:9
Blackmagic Studio Camera 6K Pro x mm 16:9
Blackmagic URSA Broadcast G2 x mm 16:9
Blackmagic URSA Mini Pro 4.6K G2 x mm 16:9
Blackmagic URSA Mini Pro 12K x mm 19:10
Canon EOS-1D X x mm 3:2
Canon EOS 5D Mark IV x mm 3:2
Canon EOS 90D x mm 3:2
Canon EOS C300 x mm 16:9
Canon EOS C500 x mm 19:10
Canon EOS C70 x mm 19:10
Canon EOS C700 FF x mm 17:9
Canon EOS R5 x mm 3:2
DJI Mavic Air 2 x mm 4:3
DJI Mavic 2 Pro x mm 3:2
DJI Phantom 3 x mm 4:3
Fujifilm GFX100 x mm 4:3
Fujifilm GFX100 II x mm 4:3
Fujifilm X-H2 x mm 3:2
Fujifilm X-T3 x mm 3:2
GoPro Hero12 Black x mm 8:7
Hasselblad X1D II 50C x mm 4:3
Hasselblad X2D 100C x mm 4:3
IMAX 70 mm x mm 4:3
Iphone 14 Pro
Apple uses Sony sensors for their Iphones.
x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
4:3
Iphone XS
Apple uses Sony sensors for their Iphones.
x mm 4:3
Leica S x mm 3:2
Nikon D850 x mm 3:2
Nikon Z9 x mm 3:2
Panasonic EVA1 x mm 19:10
Panasonic LUMIX BGH1 x mm 4:3
Panasonic LUMIX BS1H x mm 3:2
Panasonic LUMIX S1H x mm 3:2
Panasonic LUMIX S5II x mm 3:2
Panasonic VariCam 35 x mm 15:8
Panasonic VariCam LT x mm 15:8
Panasonic VariCam Pure x mm 15:8
Panavision DXL2
This camera uses the RED Monstro 8K sensor.
x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
17:9
RED Dragon
The sensor sizes are the same for all Dragon sensors, regardless of Dragon-X, MG, CF, S35, 5K, or 6K designations.
x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
2:1
RED Gemini
The sensor sizes are the same for all Gemini sensors, regardless of S35, or 5K designations.
x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
12:7
RED Helium x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
17:9
RED Komodo x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
17:9
RED Monstro
The sensor sizes are the same for all Monstro sensors, regardless of 8K, VK, or Monochrome designations.
x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
17:9
RED V-Raptor
The sensor sizes are the same for all V-Raptor sensors, regardless of 8K, or VV designations.
x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
17:9
Samsung Galaxy S20 Ultra x mm 4:3
Sony Alpha 6400 x mm 3:2
Sony Alpha 7 IV x mm 3:2
Sony Alpha 7C II x mm 3:2
Sony Alpha 7CR x mm 3:2
Sony Alpha 7R IV x mm 3:2
Sony Alpha 7R V x mm 3:2
Sony Alpha 7S III x mm 3:2
Sony Alpha 9 x mm 3:2
Sony BURANO x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
3:2
Sony F5 x mm 17:9
Sony F55 x mm 17:9
Sony F65 x mm 17:9
Sony FS7 x mm 18:11
Sony FS7 II x mm 18:11
Sony FX3 x mm 3:2
Sony FX6 x mm 3:2
Sony FX9 x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
19:10
Sony ILX-LR1 x mm 3:2
Sony VENICE x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
3:2
Sony VENICE 2
Sony VENICE 2 has two sensor options, an 8K (MPC-3628) and a 6K (MPC-3626).
x mm
This camera crops the sensor. Click to see all sensor sizes.
3:2
Standard 16 mm x mm 11:8
Standard 35 mm x mm 11:8
Standard 65 mm x mm 16:7
Super 8 mm x mm 13:9
Super 16 mm x mm 5:3
Super 35 mm 3-perf x mm 9:5
Super 35 mm 4-perf x mm 4:3

Data from https://api.physicallybased.info/